The ozone layer is still getting thinner, new study finds

first_imgChemicals, Climate Change, Climate Change And Biodiversity, Climate Change And Extinction, Conservation, Environment, Extinction, Forests, Industry, Mass Extinction, Ozone Layer, Plants, Research, Trees A team of scientists measured the total amount of ozone in the atmosphere and found that the overall concentration is about the same as it’s been, despite a measured boost in the upper layer.That discovery led the team to surmise that the lower level of the ozone layer is still getting thinner.It could be that climate change is forcing ozone in the atmosphere to spread out more quickly toward the poles.Another hypothesis is that some of the compounds that have replaced CFCs in the past three decades may similarly be stripping the atmosphere of ozone, just as CFCs did. The specter of an environmental problem once thought to have been solved has risen again. A new study published Feb. 6 in the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics reports that the ozone layer might still be thinning, despite efforts to halt the use of the human-made chemicals thought to be responsible.That’s not to say that the Montreal Protocol hasn’t been effective. The 1989 agreement banned the use of chemicals such as chlorine-containing chlorofluorocarbons and similar compounds used to cool air in refrigerators and air conditioners, and soon after, there was evidence that the ozone layer was on the mend.“Thanks to the Montreal Protocol, ozone in the upper stratosphere” — above 30 kilometers (19 miles — “has increased significantly since 1998, and the stratosphere is also recovering above the polar regions,” William Ball, an atmospheric researcher at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (ETH Zurich) and the study’s lead author, said in a statement.Detail of naturally aborted ovulate cone at end of growth season from control (non-irradiated) healthy pine. Another recent study has found that radiation, allowed into the atmosphere by a thinning ozone layer, may sterilize trees. Photo and caption by Jeff Benca/University of California, Berkeley.Most scientists figured that the ozone layer would return to its proper form by 2050 or so. But when Ball and his colleagues measured the total amount of ozone in the atmosphere, they found that the overall concentration was about the same as it’s been, despite that measured boost in the upper layer. That discovery led the team to surmise that the lower level of the ozone layer, which lies between 15 and 24 kilometers (9 and 15 miles) above the Earth’s surface, is still getting thinner. The authors note that this part of the layer usually has the highest density of ozone, which shields the planet from ultraviolet rays and other types of radiation.The researchers acknowledge that several questions remain unanswered. For example, they weren’t able to show definitively that the ozone layer is in fact thinning in those parts of the atmosphere below 15 kilometers.It could be that the warming climate is forcing ozone to spread out toward Earth’s poles more quickly than before. Or a new class of compounds that are taking the place of CFCs, known as very short-lived substances, could be having a similar effect. They, too, contain chlorine and bromine, and while some of them form naturally in the atmosphere, a few others are used in industrial applications.“These short-lived substances could be an insufficiently considered factor in the models,” Ball said.A malformed pollen grain of irradiated pine. Photo and caption by Jeff Benca/University of California, Berkeley.And Ball and his colleagues aren’t sure what the knock-on effects will be or exactly what’s causing it. A related study, published in the journal Science Advances on Feb. 7, puts forth evidence that higher levels of UV radiation could render trees infertile. What’s more, a thinner ozone layer may have played a part in a mass extinction a few hundred million years ago.What is clear is that the steps the global community took nearly 30 years ago in Montreal are working to some degree, said Thomas Peter, an atmospheric chemist at ETH Zurich and one of the study’s authors.“The decline now observed is far less pronounced than before the Montreal Protocol,” Peter said in the statement. “The impact of the Protocol is undisputed, as evidenced by the trend reversal in the upper stratosphere and at the poles.”Still, this study makes it clear that it hasn’t solved the whole problem.“[We] have to keep an eye on the ozone layer and its function as a UV filter in the heavily populated mid-latitudes and tropics,” he added.Banner image of the Cygnus Loop Nebula, a picture that can’t be taken from Earth because the ozone layer would block the UV light, by NASA/JPL-Caltech [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.CITATIONSBall, W. T., Alsing, J., Mortlock, D. J., Staehelin, J., Haigh, J. D., Peter, T., … & Bourassa, A. (2018). Evidence for a continuous decline in lower stratospheric ozone offsetting ozone layer recovery. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 18(2), 1379-1394.Benca, J. P., Duijnstee, I. A. P., & Looy, C. V. (2018). UV-B–induced forest sterility: Implications of ozone shield failure in Earth’s largest extinction. Science Advances, 4(2).FEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the author of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page. Article published by John Cannoncenter_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsoredlast_img read more

Contender opening bout ends in 55 seconds

first_imgThere was an eerie silence and then disbelief at the Chinese Benevolent Association last Wednesday night, when the first fight in the 2016 Contender series between Richard ‘Frog’ Holmes and American Xzaviar Ford ended after only 55 seconds.Holmes was declared the winner by technical knockout (TKO), after Ford tore a tendon in his right shoulder and could not continue.After seeing two amateur bouts that ended by way of first-round knockouts, the large and enthusiastic crowd settled down for what was expected to be an exciting five-round bout between 19-year-old Ford, who is from North Carolina, USA, and Jamaica’s Holmes.Holmes, who is 28, was posted favourite by the crowd, because he had a 10-5 record as opposed to that of Ford, who had one win and three losses going into the fight. Holmes was also runner-up in the competition last year as a middleweight.Ford started aggressively, throwing jabs and moving in and out quickly, in an effort to get himself on the scorecards of the judges early. He landed a few good jabs to Holmes’ body and head, and gave the fans an early promise of an exciting fight.That was not to be, however, because while engaging in an exchange, Ford stopped abruptly, dropped his right shoulder and grimaced. Obviously in great pain, he was taken over to a neutral corner for an assessment by ring physician Dr AndrÈ McDonald, who advised referee Eion Jardine that the fight had to be stopped because Ford was in no condition to continue.Ford was then taken to his dressing room, where he was treated and then taken by ambulance to hospital. An MRI Wednesday night revealed that he had suffered a torn tendon in his right shoulder.He and his trainer Chris Joy left Jamaica yesterday for North Carolina.DISAPPOINTEDHolmes told The Gleaner afterwards that he was very disappointed at the way the fight ended. He said that he was very confident of victory and was sorry that his opponent had been injured and unable to continue.”I wanted a big [win] tonight to take me into the quarter finals, but unfortunately, that did not happen. I just have to move on,” he added.In the amateur bouts on the card, Joel Wedderburn from the St Thomas Boxing Club scored a first-round TKO victory over Iroyno Cleary from the Heavy Metal gym, while Samuel Grant from Sugar Knockout Gym knocked out Heavy Metal gym’s AndrÈ Sloley, also in the first round.last_img read more


first_imgMonaghan have a secret weapon in their camp today – rugby star Tommy Bowe.The Irish international is well known as a clothes designer and even has his own clothing and footwear label.And for today’s Ulster final, Bowe has supplied the Monaghan team with an exclusive range of clothing.But that’s okay because Tommy has obviously never heard of Evolve Menswear.So not only are Monaghan going to be beaten off the pitch, they’re also going to be hammered in the fashion stakes!RUGBY STAR TOMMY BOWE’S CLOTHING A BAD FIT FOR DONEGAL STARS! was last modified: July 18th, 2015 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:donegalEvolveMonaghanTommy Bowelast_img read more

Photo library: Buildings and structures 4

first_img{loadposition tc}Click on a thumbnail for a low-resolution image, or right-click on the link below it to download a high-resolution copy of the image.» Download Buildings & Structures contact sheet (1.1MB) » Download full image library contact sheet (10.5MB) Johannesburg, Gauteng province: Baragwanath minibus taxi rank, Old Potchefstroom Road, Soweto. Photo: Chris Kirchhoff, » Download high-res image Gauteng province: Frontview of the state-of-the-art Maropeng visitors’ centre at the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site, which is famous for the wealth of early human fossils found there. Photo: » Download high-res image Gauteng province: Frontview of the state-of-the-art Maropeng visitors’ centre at the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site, which is famous for the wealth of early human fossils found there. Photo: » Download high-res image Gauteng province:A home-made wind turbine on a smallholding in the Magaliesburg region. Photo: » Download high-res image Gauteng province:A home-made wind turbine on a smallholding in the Magaliesburg region. Photo: » Download high-res image Gauteng province: A home-made wind turbine on a smallholding in the Magaliesburg region. Photo: » Download high-res image Cape Town, Western Cape province: The entrance to the Sea Point municipal swimming pool. Photo: Jeffrey Barbee, Download hi-res image Cape Town, Western Cape province: Victorian building in Long Street. Photo: Jeffrey Barbee, Download hi-res image Cape Town, Western Cape province: Art Deco building in Sea Point. Photo: Jeffrey Barbee, » Download high-res image BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES 4: {loadposition bd}Having trouble downloading high-resolution images? Queries about the image library? Email Janine Erasmus at read more

Net-Metering Is Preserved in Kansas

first_imgKansas state legislators have rejected a measure that would have ended net-metering, the rate system that allows homeowners to sell excess solar and wind-generated power to their utilities.Instead, Midwest Energy News reports, lawmakers passed a compromise that preserves net metering but lowers the reimbursement rate to the utility’s avoided cost.The three investor owned utilities in Kansas had backed the repeal effort, part of a broad initiative by the American Legislative Exchange Council to quash renewable energy initiatives around the country. But lawmakers in Kansas weren’t buying it. Utilities objected to net-metering ratesWestar Energy, one of the Kansas utilities in favor of the repeal, had complained net metering rules were forcing it to pay customers retail prices for a wholesale commodity, The Topeka Capital-Journal said in a report in February.Echoing claims that other utilities around the country have made, Westar executive Mark Schreiber said, “When a customer generates some of his or her own power and gets paid the full retail rate of 10 cents, the result is that other customers pay his share of the cost of the entire infrastructure that he continues to use.”Schreiber favored reimbursement rates at the utility’s “avoided cost” rather than the full retail price, and lawmakers agreed. News reports didn’t specify what the new reimbursement rate would be.The bill also reduces the size of residential solar installations that can qualify for net metering, from 25 kW to 15 kW. For commercial projects, the limit was reduced from 200 kW to 100 kW, Midwest Energy News said.Separately, state representatives in Kansas also defeated a bill last month that would have repealed renewable energy standards that were adopted in 2009, according to The Associated Press. The vote in the House was 77-42 to kill a measure that had the backing of the Kansas Chamber of Commerce and had been approved in the state Senate.The standards require utilities to provide 20% of their power from renewable sources by 2020.last_img read more

Corbett Tiger Reserve Director removed after his shoot-at-sight order

first_img Last week, Mr. Dhakate had issued shoot-at-sight order and pressed two drones into service after movement of poachers was reported along the southern fringes of the park.150 forest officials were deployed and a total of 388 camera traps installed at sensitive points within the territory of the park.Villagers in the area were also informed of the same and were advised to avoid taking animals for grazing to the core areas.The order, however, raised eyebrows following which Mr. Dhakate has been removed from his post. The Director of Corbett Tiger Reserve has been removed from his post following a controversy over shoot-at-sight order issued by him in the national park to check the activities of poachers.Uttrakhand’s Chief Secretary S. Ramaswamy said that Parag Madhukar Dhakate has been replaced by Dheeraj Pandey as Director.D.V.S Khati, the Chief Wildlife Warden, said that Mr. Dhakate was not authorised to issue any such order.Also Read Corbett Tiger Reserve workers get the nod to kill armed poachers last_img read more