With his recent “all-in-or-all-out” decree, Raiders general manager Mike Mayock has made it known that it’s time for Antonio Brown to get to work.And maybe the controversial wide receiver agrees.In the latest sneak-peek clip for HBO’s “Hard Knocks: Training Camp With the Oakland Raiders,” Brown is alone with the camera crew once again (Lord, they love him!) and he admits that there has been “too much noise” surrounding his bizarre feet injuries, his battle with the NFL over helmet …
As if reprimanding simpletons, three scientists writing in Science1 preached that the old picture of evolution from simple to complex is simplistic. This is particularly true, they claim, for the story that eukaryotes were born from a blessed union. “Data from many sources,” they counter, “give no direct evidence that eukaryotes evolved by genome fusion between archaea and bacteria.” Further down, they remark, “Unfortunately, such a model has been tacitly favored by molecular biologists who appeared to view evolution as an irreversible march from simple prokaryotes to complex eukaryotes, from unicellular to multicellular.” The old picture harks back to obsolete views of straight-line evolution.Comparative genomics and proteomics have strengthened the view that modern eukaryote and prokaryote cells have long followed separate evolutionary trajectories. Because their cells appear simpler, prokaryotes have traditionally been considered ancestors of eukaryotes. Nevertheless, comparative genomics has confirmed a lesson from paleontology: Evolution does not proceed monotonically from the simpler to the more complex. Here, we review recent data from proteomics and genome sequences suggesting that eukaryotes are a unique primordial lineage….Out with the old, in with the new. What do they suggest to replace the old picture? Believe it or not, “sequence loss and cellular simplification.” Since these are “are common modes of evolution,” they argue that the first eukaryote was already a unique, complex creature. Like a predator or raptor, it acquired mitochondria by phagocytosis, and diversified from there. Their view does not prohibit increases in complexity, yet they seem eager to distance evolutionary theory from visions of progress. “Genome evolution is a two-way street,” they say; “This bidirectional sense of reversibility is important as an alternative to the view of evolution as a rigidly monotonic progression from simple to more complex states, a view with roots in the 18th-century theory of orthogenesis.” They describe several life-forms that have reduced their genomes and slimmed down to the bare minimum: parasites, symbionts, organelle genomes, and anaerobes. OK so far; evolution can move either toward complex or simple – but how does this explain eukaryotes (cells with nuclei and compartmentalized organelles)? Here, their explanation appears forced by the hard realities of the evidence. From the earliest possible ancestor, eukaryotes were already complex. They had introns (and complex spliceosomes, half of whose 78 proteins are unique to eukaryotes, to handle them), mitosomes, hydrogenosomes, mitochondria, nuclei, nucleoli, the Golgi apparatus, centrioles, and an endoplasmic reticulum, along with “hundreds of proteins with no orthologs evident in the genomes of prokaryotes.” (Simple Giardia, for example, has 347 eukaryote signature proteins.) Much of the article describes the unprecedented features of eukaryotes, which constitute a “unique cell type that cannot be deconstructed into features inherited directly from archaea and bacteria.” This calls for alternatives to “hypotheses that attribute eukaryote origins to genome fusion between archaea and bacteria” (endosymbiosis), which they claim “are surprisingly uninformative about the emergence of the cellular and genomic signatures of eukaryotes.” Recognition of these realities must be “the critical starting point” for explaining where eukaryotes came from: i.e., a “larger and more complex cell” at the beginning when the three kingdoms – bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes – diverged. Their picture can be summarized as follows: (1) the common ancestor was a raptor or predator on prokaryote mitochondria. (2) Cellular crowding and compartmentalization led to more efficient molecular interactions. (3) Extensive genome reduction followed. Darwin, of course, grins in the background; “This abbreviated account of genome reduction illustrates the Darwinian view of evolution as a reversible process in the sense that ‘eyes can be acquired and eyes can be lost’” (because of the two-way street of natural selection). Even Darwin would have agreed that “selection gives, and selection takes.” They concur with essential evolutionary doctrine without hesitation: “Genomes evolve continuously through the interplay of unceasing mutation, unremitting competition, and ever-changing environments.” Darwinism is safe, therefore; so now, let’s picture the new emerging story for the 21st century:For the reasons outlined above, we favor the idea that the host that acquired the mitochondrial endosymbiont [sic] was a unicellular eukaryote predator, a raptor. The emergence [sic] of unicellular raptors would have had a major ecological impact on the evolution of the gentler descendants of the common ancestor. These may have responded with several adaptive strategies: They might outproduce the raptors by rapid growth or hide from raptors by adapting to extreme environments. Thus, the hypothetical eukaryote raptors may have driven the evolution of their autotrophic, heterotrophic, and saprotrophic cousins in a reductive mode that put a premium on the relatively fast-growing, streamlined cell types we call prokaryotes.One problem. How this complex, predatory cell with most of its unique parts “emerged” is anyone’s guess. So get busy, everyone: “This scenario, which is not contradicted by new data derived from comparative genomics and proteomics, is a suitable starting point [sic] for future work.”1Kurland, Collins and Penny, “Genomics and the Irreducible Nature of Eukaryote Cells,” Science, 19 May 2006: Vol. 312. no. 5776, pp. 1011 – 1014, DOI: 10.1126/science.1121674.How many more times can Darwinism survive the onslaught of facts? Here is another case where (1) everything you know is wrong, (2) the old ideas taught in the days of the Scopes Trial and as far back as Darwin were too simplistic, (3) the complexity appears to have been present from the start, and (4) nobody has a clue what happened, and (5) all we have is a “suitable starting point” (read: hunch, guess, scenario, plot, tall tale) for starting all over. Once again, also, it will be harder this time because the “new data derived from comparative genomics and proteomics” complicates the picture enormously. In place of the old simple story (that was easy to illustrate in textbook cartoons), we have a new, more violent tale. Predator cells pop into existence somehow, fully equipped; they alter the ecology and force the prokaryote prey to streamline their genomes and hide. Established at the top of the food chain, these new eukaryotes begin their long trek toward Volvox, Tiktaalik and Homo sapiens. Whenever needed, these storytellers can always invoke the Darwinist Miracle Word emergence to cover their tracks, and call in Tinker Bell to wave the mutation wand when a major innovation is needed. Thus is worship in the Temple of Charlie kept going another day, while Big Science mans the fortifications. But for how much longer? The Visigoths are at the gates (05/09/2006), demanding, “Enough of this! No more excuses. Mr. Darwin, tear down this wall!”(Visited 70 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
A typical apartment building in New York City loses thousands of dollars worth of energy every year from leaky elevator shafts that vent warm air at the top of the building and draw in cold air at the bottom, according to a new report from the city’s U.S. Green Building Council chapter.The report, Spending Through the Roof, says that apartment building owners spend an average of $3,400 a year to heat replacement air for what’s lost through the roof. In taller buildings, the report notes, the cost can be more than $20,000 a year.Plugging this type of air leak can cost from $500 to $15,000 for a large building. If the leaks were plugged on 4,000 tall apartment buildings in the city, landlords would collectively save $11 million a year while keeping 30,000 metric tons of greenhouse gases out of the atmosphere. Holes in the roof were requiredOpenings in the tops of elevator shafts and stairwells were required by state and fire department regulations, the report says, as a way of venting smoke in the case of fire. But construction practices and firefighting techniques have changed, so the vents now “are needlessly open all the time.”Tenants know their buildings are affected when they try to open the ground-floor doors to get in, according to an article in The New York Times. “As you try to pull open a lobby door,” the newspaper reported, “it seems soldered shut. Wrestle it open, and you are greeted by a shrill whistle and a blast of air.”How much heat is lost depends on how tall the building is and where it’s located. The report notes that a 15-story multifamily building in a dense neighborhood loses $3,000 worth of heat through the roof every heating season. The same building in an area subjected to more airflow (less densely built up) would lose $6,500.Total lost heat in the 4,000 multifamily buildings that are at least 10 stories high would fill 29,000 Empire State Buildings.The two major options for plugging the leaks are to cover two-thirds of elevator shaft vents with annealed glass, leaving the rest open, or to install a motorized set of louvers that stay closed unless there’s a fire.Laws governing stairwell vents haven’t changed since 1929, the report says, so there’s no legal way now for building owners to fix the problem.
India should cooperate with Pakistan to ensure regional stability and to end the Afghan war, said the Ambassador of Russia on Monday. Speaking at a public event here, Nikolay Kudashev said that India-Pakistan collaboration will help in resolving the decades-old conflict in Afghanistan.“The problems of Afghanistan are impossible to resolve without taking on board every neighbouring country. Excessive pressure on certain states would just antagonise them and make numerous problems even more complicated… this logic also guides us to further develop ties with Pakistan and it is in the interest of regional stability to help Pakistanis as well as Indians effectively adjust themselves to the new forms of cooperation offered by SCO (Shanghai Cooperation Organisation) and enhance their anti-terrorism cooperation,” said Mr. Kudashev elaborating on Russia’s engagement of Pakistan.In a set of frank observations at an event organised by the Anant Aspen Centre, the envoy urged India to cooperate with Pakistan in the platforms that various multilateral bodies are providing.New-found bonhomieMoscow and Pakistan dealt with a difficult phase during the 1980s when Pakistan supported the Mujahideen fighters to counter Soviet occupation forces. However the cooperation took off in the last few years with joint counter-terror drills between two sides that India has observed with concern. The envoy clarified that Moscow does not prioritise bilateral disputes in South Asia while framing policies.“We don’t look at the region from the point of view of bilateral disputes that we are not in a position to interfere or take sides. There should be realistic and comprehensive approach to the issues of common interest,” said the envoy highlighting the need for peace between India and Pakistan.“No doubt that existing disagreements between India and Pakistan should be resolved politically and diplomatically according to the provisions of the Simla Agreement of 1972 and the 1999 Lahore Declaration,” Mr. Kudashev said.He said that Russia is open to a relationship with all sides for the sake of regional stability and the crisis in Afghanistan requires the “Afghan-led” solution.
Security forces have busted a recruitment racket of the National Socialist Council of Nagalim (Isak-Muivah) in Nagaland and rescued 32 people during an operation, an official said. Two cadres of the outfit were arrested in this connection.Based on a specific input that a group of people was being taken by NSCN (IM) cadres to Aopao camp in Mon district, a joint team of the Army and the Assam Rifles intercepted a vehicle on Mon-Aboi road on November 21 and foiled the bid, Defence PRO Lt. Col. Sumit Sharma said.Two NSCN (IM) cadres were apprehended and 32 people hailing from Laokkun, Tizit town, Jaboka, Nokzang, Hatothi (Naginimora) and Chingphoi villages were rescued.The people had been lured by the outfit on the pretext of providing jobs, he said.Two accused were handed over to the police on November 22 for further investigation, the PRO added.
MOST READ View comments MANILA, Philippines—A mix of familiar names and first-timers make up the talent pool for the Philippine national volleyball teams that will play in the 2019 Southeast Asian Games hosted by the country later in the year.The names for the women’s, men’s and under-23 teams were announced on Thursday by Larong Volleyball sa Pilipinas Inc.ADVERTISEMENT Private companies step in to help SEA Games hosting Playoff contest heats up SEA Games hosting troubles anger Duterte LATEST STORIES Marck Espejo, a former five-time UAAP MVP, and John Vic de Guzman, once named captain, will headline the men’s side. Also chosen for the men’s team pool are Adbilla Alnakran, Mark Alfafara, Bryan Bagunas, Kim Dayandante, Joven dela Vega, Rex Intal, Ismail Fauzi, Jack Kalingking, Jessie Lopez, Jeffrey Malabanan, Kim Malabunga, Rikko Marmeto, Ricky Marcos, Ish Polvorosa, Francis Saura, Jayvee Sumagaysay, Peter Torres, and Joshua Umandal. National University’s Dante Alinsunurin is the men’s team head coach with Ariel Dela Cruz and Sherwin Meneses as his assistants. ADVERTISEMENT Trump campaign, GOP groups attack Google’s new ad policy Hong Kong tunnel reopens, campus siege nears end Lacson backs proposal to elect president and vice president in tandem Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next P2.5 B shabu seized in Makati sting, Chinese national nabbed Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. PH women’s volleyball team motivated to deliver in front of hometown crowd PLAY LIST 02:25PH women’s volleyball team motivated to deliver in front of hometown crowd00:50Trending Articles05:25PH boxing team determined to deliver gold medals for PH02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games02:11Trump awards medals to Jon Voight, Alison Krauss Alyssa Valdez is back for her eighth tour of duty for the Philippines, third for the Southeast Asian Games, while former national team players Mika Reyes, Aby Maraño, Denden Lazaro, Dawn Macandili were also named to women’s national team pool. Sisters Jaja Santiago and Dindin Santiago-Manabat, Ces Molina, Jia Morado, Mylene Paat, Aiza Maizo-Pontillas, and Filipino-American players Kalei Mau, Alohi Robins-Hanfy, and MJ Phillips were selected in the pool where the final lineup for the 2019 Southeast Asian Games will be chosen from. FEATURED STORIESSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSUrgent reply from Philippine football chiefSPORTSPalace wants Cayetano’s PHISGOC Foundation probed over corruption chargesFresh faces are also part of the group with Eya Laure headlining the newcomers that also include Diana Carlos, Kath Arado, Angel Cayuna, Celine Domingo, Jema Galanza, and Jerrili Malabanan.Shaq Delos Santos will call the shots for the women’s national team with Shaq Esquibel and Kung Fu Reyes as his deputies. 1 dead, 3 injured in Quezon road crash P2.5 B shabu seized in Makati sting, Chinese national nabbed