Oldenburg Academy 5K Lauf

first_imgEven though Freudenfest has been canceled, The 2020 Twister Lauf is still going on Saturday, July 18th at Oldenburg.starting at 9 AM. Proceeds will go towards OASIS.  Failed to fetch Error: URL to the PDF file must be on exactly the same domain as the current web page. Click here for more infoCourtesy of Twisters AD Patrick Kolks.last_img

Federer tops list of world’s highest-paid athletes

first_imgTwo NFL quarterbacks rounded out the top 10 with Kirk Cousins ninth at $60.5 million and Carson Wentz 10th on $59.1 million.The top 100 featured athletes from 21 nations and 10 sports. More NBA players made the list than those from any other sport at 35, but 31 NFL players made the cut, up from 19 from last year, and they pulled down the most money of any league, aided by finishing the season before the deadly virus outbreak.Major League Baseball, whose start to the 2020 campaign was postponed by the virus outbreak, put only one player on the list after 15 in 2019. The lone MLB player was Los Angeles Dodgers pitcher Clayton Kershaw, who was 57th at $27.3 million with only $750,000 from endorsements.Spanish footballer Sergio Ramos, the Real Madrid captain, was last among the 100 on $21.8 million, including $3 million in endorsements.Two women, tennis stars Naomi Osaka of Japan and Serena Williams of the United States, made the list, the most females on it since 2016. Osaka ranked 29th overall on $37.4 million ($34 million in endorsements), four spots ahead of Williams with $36 million ($32 million in endorsements).– Federer pitchman magic –Federer, 38, boasts the biggest sponsorship lineup among active athletes with Moet & Chandon and Barilla among those paying from $3 to $30 million to link him with their brands.Federer, who spent a record 310 weeks as world number one, reached 18 of 19 Grand Slam finals from 2005-2010.Only Woods has joined Federer in making $100 million in sponsor deals in a single year.Federer’s newest deal is with Swiss running shoe On, where he is an investor, but several sponsors have been with him for more than a decade, including Rolex, Credit Suisse, Mercedes-Benz and Wilson.A split with Nike in 2018 opened Federer to Japanese apparel brand Uniqlo’s 10-year deal worth $300 million.Share on: WhatsApp New York, United States | AFP | Roger Federer topped the 2020 Forbes magazine list of highest-paid global athletes announced Friday, leading the lineup for the first time with pre-tax earnings of $106.3 million (95.5 million euros).The Swiss tennis legend, a men’s record 20-time Grand Slam singles champion, becomes the first player from his sport atop the annual list since its 1990 debut, rising from fifth in 2019.Federer’s haul over the past 12 months included $100 million from appearance fees and endorsement deals plus $6.3 million in prize money. His previous best showing was second in 2013.“His brand is pristine, which is why those that can afford to align with him clamor to do so,” University of Southern California sports business professor David Carter told the magazine.The ongoing coronavirus pandemic that shut down sports worldwide caused the first decline since 2016 in the total income of the world’s 100 top-paid athletes, a 9% dip from last year to $3.6 billion. Another plunge is expected next year from the shutdown.Portuguese football star Cristiano Ronaldo was second on the list at $105 million, $60 million in salary and $45 million from endorsements, with Argentine football hero Lionel Messi third on $104 million, $32 million of that from sponsorship deals.Messi and Ronaldo, who have traded the top spot three of the past four years, saw their combined incomes dip $28 million from last year due to salary cuts when European clubs halted play in March.Brazilian footballer Neymar was fourth overall on $95.5 million, $25 million from endorsements, while NBA star LeBron James of the Los Angeles Lakers was fifth on $88.2 million, $60 million of that from endorsements.NBA star Stephen Curry of the Golden State Warriors was sixth on $74.4 million with former teammate Kevin Durant next on $63.9 million.Tiger Woods, the reigning Masters champion and a 15-time major winner, was eighth on the list and tops among golfers at $62.3 million, all but $2.3 million from sponsor deals.Woods topped the Forbes list a record 12 times before an infidelity scandal helped end his run.last_img read more

‘New’ giant octopus discovered in the Pacific

first_imgAnimals, Biodiversity, Cryptic Species, Environment, Green, New Species, Oceans, Species Discovery, Wildlife Article published by Rhett Butler The world’s largest octopus — the giant Pacific octopus — is actually represented by more than one species.New research indicates there are at least two species of octopus housed under what is traditionally called the giant Pacific octopus.The new species is called the frilled giant Pacific octopus.The giant Pacific octopus can weigh up to 70 kilograms (150 pounds). The world’s largest octopus — the giant Pacific octopus — is actually represented by more than one species, according to new research led by an undergraduate student at Alaska Pacific University.The study, published in American Malacological Bulletin, describes a second species of the giant Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini) based on DNA samples and visual observations of octopuses collected in shrimp pots laid by fishermen in Alaska’s Prince William Sound. The newly distinguished species is called the frilled giant Pacific octopus for the distinctive “frill” that runs the length of its body. A formal description of the species is forthcoming.The newly documented frilled giant Pacific octopus has two distinctive white marks on its head. Photo courtesy of David ScheelThe giant Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini) has only one white mark on its head. Photo courtesy of David ScheelThe visual confirmation of the new species was completed by Nate Hollenbeck, who undertook the research as his senior thesis at at Alaska Pacific University. Hollenbeck’s co-author is his advisor David Scheel.The findings aren’t a huge surprise, according to a story in Earther, which notes that “Scientists have suspected for decades that giant Pacific octopus might be an ‘umbrella name’ covering more than one species.”The newly documented frilled giant Pacific octopus. Photo courtesy of David ScheelThe results suggest that further research may yield more cryptic species currently classified under the giant Pacific octopus, whose range rings the Pacific from California to Japan.CITATION:Hollenbeck, N. and D. Scheel. 2017. Body patterns of the frilled giant Pacific octopus, a new species of octopus from Prince William Sound, AK. American Malacological Bulletin 35(2): 134-144.center_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsoredlast_img read more

Legal recognition in the works for communities occupying Indonesia’s conservation areas

first_imgThe Indonesian government plans to formally recognize the occupation and use of land inside conservation areas, including national parks, by local and indigenous communities.The program will grant these communities access to clearly defined areas within these conservation zones, in exchange for managing these areas responsibly and sustainably, and not expanding their encroachment.However, the program could clash with a 2017 presidential regulation that emphasizes resettlement as a solution to human encroachment in conservation areas. JAKARTA — The Indonesian government has acquiesced to the reality that local and indigenous communities already manage land within conservation areas, saying it will begin formalizing this de facto stewardship this year.Some 5,860 villages are peppered throughout conservation areas covering a combined 221,000 square kilometers (85,330 square miles) of land, according to data from the Ministry of Environment and Forestry. National parks account for three-fifths of that land, and though these are ostensibly off-limits to human activity, the reality is that many communities have long existed in these areas, subsisting off the forest and its natural resources.“These are people who have been interacting with national parks and sanctuaries for a long time,” Wiratno, the ministry’s head of conservation, told reporters in Jakarta. “And they’ve been neglected [by the government], without any legal certainty” over access to or management of the land.One prominent case centers on Sumatra’s Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, one of the last bastions on Earth of the critically endangered Sumatran rhino, tiger and elephant. Human encroachment into the park — in the form of coffee farmers and loggers, among others — has prompted alarm among conservationists. A 2012 study found there were at least 100,000 people either living in or farming within the park, with around 15 percent of the park’s 3,568 square kilometers (1,377 square miles) under active encroachment — an area more than five times the size of Paris.Indigenous Indonesians of Mentawai district depend their lives on the resourceful forests. Photo by Vinolia Ahmad/Mongabay-Indonesia.Conservation partnershipTo address the reality of this encroachment, the environment ministry plans to grant rights to local communities to manage 250 square kilometers (97 square miles) of conservation areas this year, with more to be distributed in the following years.Wiratno’s office is drafting technical guidelines on how to implement this so-called conservation partnership program, which forms part of the government’s wider goal of distributing 120,000 square kilometers (46,330 square miles) of land to local communities under various “social forestry” schemes.“Once the technical guidelines are done, this program will be implemented right away,” Wiratno said. He added there were already many recommendations from regional stakeholders on areas that could benefit from the program.The core of the idea is that instead of resettling local communities from national parks to other places or prosecuting them for encroachment, it would be better for the government to legally recognize these communities’ presence in conservation areas and cooperate with them to manage the areas responsibly.Through the scheme, the government will define areas within the conservation zones where communities can continue farming; no farming will be allowed beyond these areas, to prevent further encroachment. The communities will also be responsible for the protection and sustainable management of their designated areas.“They will protect wildlife and also handle conflicts with the wildlife,” Wiratno said. “Local communities will be involved in the planning [of conservation area management] right from the start. In the past, they’ve been perceived as squatters, but now we’re making them the main puzzle piece to solve the problems.”The government will also gather data from these communities to determine whether they are genuine small farmers in need of land, or middlemen fronting for big businesses.“If a local community has 100 hectares of oil palm plantations, then this is not a community that’s deprived,” Wiratno said.The ministry has mapped several conservation areas in Sumatra as candidates for the program, including Bukit Barisan Selatan; Leuser National Park in Aceh province, which spans 200 square kilometers (77 square miles); Tesso Nilo National Park in Riau (80 square kilometers); and Wan Abdul Rachman Forest Park in Lampung (40 square kilometers).“We’re in the process of identifying [conservation partnership sites] in all conservation areas,” Wiratno said. “We have to be really careful [in implementing this program]. Our weakness is usually in the monitoring and evaluation of the program. If the partnership doesn’t succeed, we may have to scrap it.”The program will also include indigenous communities. Citing data from the Indigenous People’s Alliance of the Archipelago (AMAN), Wiratno said 129 indigenous communities lived on 16,400 square kilometers (6,330 square miles) of conservation areas.These areas will have a special designation that will allow them to be fast-tracked to “customary forests,” or hutan adat in Indonesian. Under a landmark 2013 decision by Indonesia’s highest court, indigenous communities retain full control of customary forests from the state.Crested black macaque. Photo by Rhett A. Butler / Mongabay.Indigenous rights and identityThe country’s main environmental lobby, the Indonesian Forum for the Environment (WALHI), has welcomed the program.“It’s quite good as long as it gives legal certainty to the people,” WALHI policy assessment manager Even Sembiring told reporters in Jakarta. He added that a draft of the program’s guidelines “also accommodates indigenous groups.”However, Even cautioned that the program could be hindered by a regulation issued by President Joko “Jokowi” Widodo in September 2017, which emphasizes enforcement measures —resettlements and prosecutions — for dealing with land conflicts in forest zones.“Resettlement is just a euphemism for eviction,” Even said. “How can we resettle indigenous peoples who have historical and emotional ties to their nature?”The Indonesian Communication Forum on Community Forestry (FKKM), a group of indigenous rights advocates, said that while the program granted a sort of recognition for indigenous groups, the government still needed to do more to legally recognize indigenous peoples.Muhammad Arman, the head of AMAN’s legal and advocacy division, said as many as a million indigenous people in conservation areas were at risk of resettlement under the 2017 regulation.“Moving a person from one place to another doesn’t just impact their livelihood,” he told reporters in Jakarta. “There’s also the effacement of their identity, because for indigenous people, their places are their identity.” Banner image: A Dani man in Indonesia’s Papua, one of the most linguistically diverse regions in the world. Photo by Rhett A. Butler for Mongabay. Community-based Conservation, Conservation, Environment, Forestry, Forests, Indigenous Communities, Indigenous Peoples, Indonesia, Protected Areas, Rainforest Conservation, Rainforests Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsored Article published by Hans Nicholas Jonglast_img read more

Webs under water: The really bizarre lives of intertidal spiders

first_imgAnimals, Arachnids, Biodiversity, Conservation, Habitat, Interns, Oceans, Research, Spiders, Wildlife Article published by Maria Salazar Scientists have discovered a 15th species of intertidal spider, a family of unusual arachnids that live in coastal habitats that are submerged during high tides.The newest species, named after singer Bob Marley, was discovered living on brain coral off the Australian coast.Scientists know that some species create air pockets with their hairs, while others build waterproof webs, but little is known about most of these fascinating spiders.Intertidal spiders face a number of threats, including rising sea levels due to climate change, and pollution. Spiders are one of the most ubiquitous creatures on Earth, found on every continent except Antarctica. Whether in underground caves in the Amazon or the icy climes of Mount Everest, there is a species of spider that has moved into practically every land habitat. But some arachnids are determined to not even let the oceans stand in their way — and scientists have just discovered a new one. A spider named for the late reggae legend Bob Marley is the newest member of the 15 known species of so-called intertidal spiders. These weird spiders inhabit the intertidal zone: a stretch of land that is submerged during high tide and exposed during low. Scientists from Australia’s Queensland Museum and the Zoological Museum at the University of Hamburg, Germany, first found Bob Marley’s spider (Desis bobmarleyi) in 2009 and described it last December. A male Bob Marley’s spider (Desis bobmarleyi), discovered in Port Douglas in Queensland, Australia. Photo by Robert Raven“The connection to Bob Marley was first through his song ‘high tide [or] low tide’ as these spiders live in the high tide low tide zone,” said Barbara Baehr, a research scientist from the Queensland Museum and the lead author of the paper.The mix of land and sea in the intertidal zone supports a wildly diverse set of habitats. For instance, Baehr found Bob Marley’s spider on brain corals in shallow reefs on the rocky Queensland coast. But another intertidal species, Desis formidablis, or the formidable spider, lives under boulders on rocky shores and hides in barnacle shells in South Africa. To date, scientists have recorded intertidal spiders along the coastlines of Australia, New Zealand, Southern Africa, the Pacific Islands and India. Bob Marley’s spider (Desis bobmarleyi) on a brain coral at low tide. Photo by Paul HoyeThe most well-known intertidal spider, the marine spider (Desis marina), a species from New Zealand, has been found to live in the holdfasts of bull kelp, a type of seaweed. Holdfasts are like the roots of plants, allowing the seaweed to attach firmly to rocky surfaces in the turbulent intertidal zone. Intertidal spiders shelter in these hideouts during the high tide, and come out during the low tide to feed on amphipods, tiny microscopic crustaceans with no shells.Surviving in this landscape is no mean feat, says David Schiel, professor of marine ecology at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand. Schiel, though not an arachnologist, has studied other intertidal organisms extensively. He said that apart from adapting to breathing under and above water, animals in the intertidal zone need to survive constant changes in temperature and impact from wave action as well as extreme weather such as storms and cyclones. “Generally speaking, organisms have to be pretty tough and resilient to withstand these extremes, which can occur on a daily, seasonal and inter-annual basis,” he said. While organisms like barnacles, limpets and shellfish have evolved physical adaptations to survive in this wild environment, intertidal spiders are built much like their land relatives. So how do they breathe underwater? In 1967, Bruno Lamoral, an arachnologist from Natal Museum in South Africa, attempted to solve this mystery by studying the formidable spider. Lamoral found that the spider was able to stay underwater for up to 24 hours at a time, thanks to a remarkable adaptation: tiny water-repelling hairs on its body, known as hydrofuge hairs, that trap a layer of air around it. Desis formidablis, the formidable spider from South Africa, has tiny hairs that repel water and trap air when they are underwater. Photo by Sally Sivewright, www.scientistinlimbo.comLamoral believed the spider had more tricks up its sleeve. During his study, he noticed it managed to stay underwater even after the oxygen in the air film was used up, and speculated that the spider’s entire body acted like a gill, fixing oxygen from the water. Unfortunately, he wasn’t able to pinpoint how exactly this could happen.More than a decade later, in 1983, Donald Mcqueen and Colin McLay from the University of York in Canada and University of Canterbury, respectively, described more complex adaptations in their study of marine spiders in New Zealand. In some ways, bull kelp is an even tougher habitat because it is only completely exposed during extreme low tides. So unlike its South African cousin, the marine spider is sometimes submerged for days. Yet as Mcqueen and McLay found, they didn’t rely on physical gills.Instead marine spiders spun thick webs inside the holdfasts, which trapped enough air for them to survive the submergence. Examining the webs, the scientists realized the spiders chose spaces that could hold enough air for their body size. Those that didn’t, perished. The root-like holdfasts of the bull kelp in New Zealand can shelter Desis marina, the marine spider, underwater for several days. Photo by Stug Stug via Wikimedia Commons (CC-BY-SA-3.0To make the most of their stored oxygen, marine spiders also lowered their respiration rates, breathing less frequently than their land-dwelling cousins. They also used up to 90 percent of the oxygen in their nest. Thanks to these strategies, marine spiders are able to lead very full lives inside these kelp holdfasts. They hunt amphipods that also live in the kelp, move in with potential mates, and even nest under the sea. The spiders only really need the low tide to find mates. Unfortunately, research into the ecology of these fascinating creatures seems to have come to halt since the 1980s. Apart from the discovery of Bob Marley’s spider, the only new piece of recent information was a 2017 study reporting several new locations of the marine spider in New Zealand. Cor Vink, curator of natural history at Canterbury Museum in New Zealand and the lead author of that study, said records of the marine spider were very sparse, “but once we developed a good technique to find them they turned up to be in more places and greater numbers than previously known.” For the other 14 known species of intertidal spiders scattered around the world, even such basic information on distribution and population is missingAlthough unsure of why intertidal spiders are so poorly studied, Vink was excited by the discovery of the new species. “It’s interesting that new species are still being found in such unusual habitats,” he said.But how safe will those habitats be in the future?According to Schiel, populations of bull kelp are largely stable and grow mostly in places away from human habitation in New Zealand. However, this may not be the case for other spider habitats. “Because of their position between the land and full marine environment, intertidal areas are subjected to impacts in both directions,” Schiel said, citing a list of threats across the planet that include agricultural runoff, excess nutrients, fine sediments from the land, and rising water levels and temperatures from the sea — all of which could impact intertidal spiders. Vink believes these unusual spiders will continue to bewitch more scientists in the future. “There are so many interesting questions,” he said. “How does its web work in salt water? How does it survive submerged for so long? How does it sense when the tide is coming back in?” CitationsBaehr, B. C., Raven, R., & Harms, D. (2017). “High Tide or Low Tide”: Desis bobmarleyi sp. n., a new spider from coral reefs in Australia’s Sunshine State and its relative from Sāmoa (Araneae, Desidae, Desis). Evolutionary Systematics, 1, 111. Lamoral, B. H. (1968). On the ecology and habitat adaptations of two intertidal spiders, Desis formidabilis (OP Cambridge) and Amaurobioides africanus Hewitt, at. Annals of the Natal Museum, 20(1), 151-193. Mcqueen, D. J., & McLay, C. L. (1983). How does the intertidal spider Desis marina (Hector) remain under water for such a long time?. New Zealand journal of zoology, 10(4), 383-391. McLay, C. L., & Hayward, T. L. (1987). Reproductive biology of the intertidal spider Desis marina (Araneae: Desidae) on a New Zealand rocky shore. Journal of Zoology, 211(2), 357-372. Mcqueen, D. J., Pannell, L. K., & McLay, C. L. (1983). Respiration rates for the intertidal spider Desis marina (Hector). New Zealand journal of zoology, 10(4), 393-399. McLay, C. L., & Hayward, T. L. (1987). Population structure and use of Durvillaea antarctica holdfasts by the intertidal spider Desis marina (Araneae: Desidae). New Zealand journal of zoology, 14(1), 29-42. Vink, C. J., McQuillan, B. N., Simpson, A. H., & Correa-Garhwal, S. M. (2017). The marine spider, Desis marina (Araneae: Desidae): new observations and localities. The Weta, 51, 71-79. center_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsoredlast_img read more

Five-year sentences for elephant poachers in Republic of Congo

first_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsored Article published by Shreya Dasgupta Animals, Biodiversity, Conservation, Elephants, Endangered Species, Environment, Environmental Crime, Environmental Politics, Forest Elephants, Forests, Green, Ivory, Ivory Trade, Mammals, Poaching, Protected Areas, Tropical Forests, Wildlife, Wildlife Trade, Wildlife Trafficking A court in the Republic of Congo has convicted three men of killing elephants for their tusks. They were handed five-year prison sentences and fined $10,000 each.The three men were part of a six-member poaching gang that managed to escape an ambush set up by park authorities, but not before leaving behind some 70 kilograms of ivory as well as an AK-47 rifle, according to the WCS.The gang is believed to have links to some of northern Congo’s most notorious elephant poachers and ivory traffickers, including two who were jailed in the last two years. A court in the Republic of Congo has convicted three men of killing elephants for their tusks, and sentenced them to five years in jail as well as fined them the equivalent of $10,000 each, according to a press release from the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS).The men were part of a group of six elephant poachers who reportedly entered the Nouabale-Ndoki National Park on Jan. 13 and were first detected by researchers from the Goualougo Triangle Ape Project working in the south of the national park. Following reports of gunfire, park authorities deployed four ranger teams and intercepted the poachers on Feb. 2.The six poachers, however, managed to escape the ambush, but not before leaving behind 16 tusks weighing a combined 70 kilograms (154 pounds), as well as equipment including an AK-47 rifle, WCS reported. Three days later, park authorities and local police arrested three members of the gang in the nearby town of Pokola.A manhunt for the remaining three members of the poaching gang, including the suspected leader, is ongoing.“We commend the parks rangers of Nouabale-Ndoki in their continuing efforts to protect elephants in one of the last remaining strongholds of the species,” Mark Gately, director of WCS’s Republic of Congo program, said in the statement. “The convictions of three notorious poachers sends a message that such activities will not be tolerated in one of Congo’s flagship protected areas.”Forest elephants. Photo by Richard Ruggiero/USFWS (public domain).The convicted men have reportedly admitted to entering the national park illegally on numerous previous occasions, and removing some 400 kilograms (881 pounds) of ivory from the forest within the last four years. They are also believed to have links to some of northern Congo’s most notorious elephant poachers and ivory traffickers, WCS said in the statement. This includes Samuel Pembele, who was sentenced to five year in prison for ivory poaching in the same area in 2016. Another ivory trafficker, Daring Dissaka, was handed a similar sentence last year.The Nouabale-Ndoki National Park, spread across 4,200 square kilometers (1,620 square miles) in northern Republic of Congo, is home to a number of threatened species including forest elephants, western lowland gorillas, chimpanzees and bongo antelopes. Illegal hunting is a persistent threat in the park, aided by the increasing number of logging roads in the surrounding timber concessions. “Ivory trafficking networks continue to flourish in Congo and across the border to Central African Republic and Cameroon,” the WCS Congo team said in a blogpost in 2016. “These networks are exploiting new communication and transport links that arrive with logging.”The park is managed by the Nouabale-Ndoki Foundation, a public-private partnership between the government and the WCS Congo program. Ivory seized from Nouabale-Ndoki National Park. Photo courtesy of WCS.last_img read more

Pepsi cuts off Indonesian palm oil supplier over labor, sustainability concerns

first_imgConflict, Deforestation, Environment, Forced labor, Green, Oil Palm, Palm Oil, Plantations, Rainforest Conservation, Rainforest Deforestation, Rainforest Destruction, Rainforests, Social Conflict, Threats To Rainforests, Tropical Forests Banner image: Clusters of fruit from oil palm trees are cut from trees and collected in an ox-drawn cart. Photo by Bram Ebus for Mongabay. PepsiCo has announced the suspension since January 2017 of its business ties with IndoAgri, one of Indonesia’s biggest palm oil producers, citing concerns over the company’s labor rights and sustainability practices.IndoAgri has been criticized for alleged abuses of workers’ rights in some of its plantations in North Sumatra province.PepsiCo has demanded that IndoAgri resolve these outstanding issues before its considers resuming their business partnership. JAKARTA — PepsiCo has suspended its business with Indofood Agri Resources (IndoAgri), one of the largest palm oil companies in Indonesia, citing sustainability and labor rights concerns.PepsiCo, the U.S.-based company behind brands like Pepsi, Frito-Lay and Tropicana, primarily sources its palm oil from Indonesia, the world’s biggest producer of the commodity, where huge swaths of tropical forests and carbon-rich peatlands are being cleared to make way for palm plantations.It has a joint venture with the parent company of IndoAgri, Indofood, to produce some products, such as Lays-branded snacks, in the Southeast Asian nation.While IndoAgri is not a direct supplier to PepsiCo, it supplies palm oil to international traders which then sell to PepsiCo.“PepsiCo is very concerned about the allegations that our policies and commitments on palm oil, forestry stewardship and human rights are not being met,” PepsiCo said in a statement.It revealed that it had therefore decided to suspend procuring palm oil from IndoAgri for its joint venture with Indofood since January 2017.IndoAgri has been subjected to various environmental and social concerns, particularly over alleged labor rights abuse in some of its plantations.In 2016, the Rainforest Action Network (RAN), an international NGO; OPPUK, an Indonesian labor rights advocacy organization; and the International Labor Rights Forum (ILRF) published a report on alleged labor rights abuses on IndoAgri’s plantations in Indonesia’s North Sumatra province.The report documents how workers in the plantations are routinely exposed to hazardous pesticides, paid less than the minimum wage, illegally kept in a temporary work status to fill core jobs, and deterred from forming independent labor unions, among other findings.In 2017, a follow-up report was published, revealing that little progress has been made in addressing the labor rights issues, with IndoAgri only adopting cosmetic changes that fail to address the root causes of the abuse, such as putting up signs saying undocumented workers are banned, rather than formalizing these workers as employees or lowering harvest quotas.IndoAgri has also been the subject of separate complaints relating to deforestation and social or land conflicts.A 2017 report by Chain Reaction Research reveals that 42 percent of the land under Indofood Agri’s concessions is in dispute; some areas are the subject of community conflicts and labor controversies, some contain undeveloped peat and/or forest areas, some overlap with mining concessions, and others have no maps.Furthermore, at least 36 percent of the crude palm oil (CPO) processed in Indofood Agri’s refineries comes from undisclosed sources, according to the report.Robin Averbeck, the agribusiness campaign director at RAN, said that with the announcement, PepsiCo had admitted that its palm oil supply chain was tainted with high risks.“After years of denial, PepsiCo has admitted to the high risks associated with its palm oil supply chain and business partner,” she said in a statement. “Its partnership with Indofood is marred by years of labor violations and other practices that have produced nothing but Conflict Palm Oil for PepsiCo-branded snack foods.”Responding to the announcement and media coverage of it, IndoAgri confirmed that it had not been a supplier to PepsiCo since early 2017. The company also said it had complied with Indonesian labor laws and regulations.“We do not have any dispute or outstanding issue with any of our Labor Unions (we have a total of 10 Labor Unions) or the Indonesian Ministry of Labor,” IndoAgri CEO and executive director Mark Wakeford said in a statement. “We have also recently received a good compliment and zero accident award from the Indonesian Ministry of Labor.”The suspension, however, might be a temporary one; PepsiCo has left open the possibility of resuming its business relationship with IndoAgri if the palm oil firm can prove its commitment to sustainability.Last year, IndoAgri announced a new sustainability policy to address the labor rights issues and environmental concerns, with the company promising to not develop on peatland for any new development and to protect the rights of its workers, among other things.However, some green groups have identified weaknesses and loopholes in the new sustainability policy, especially those pertaining to labor issues.Eric Gottwald, the senior legal and policy director at the ILRF, said IndoAgri had failed to adopt a credible mechanism, in line with international standards set out in the U.N. Guiding Principle on Business and Human Rights, to address concerns from workers, communities and civil society organizations.“Instead, IndoAgri has made only a vague commitment that will allow it to pick and choose [which] grievances it will address,” Gottwald said in a statement.Chain Reaction Research, meanwhile, pointed out that IndoAgri had not adopted sector-specific labor standards. As such, improving its internal grievance mechanism with respect to management of human rights and environmental risks and impacts is among the issues that PepsiCo is demanding IndoAgri resolve.PepsiCo has also called on IndoAgri to provide more public information on the steps it has taken to address grievances; to take further necessary action to fully resolve the issues; and to join other stakeholders in discussing the systemic issues that exist in some oil palm plantations in Indonesia.“These steps are necessary for the potential re-establishment of palm oil supply from IndoAgri to the joint venture,” PepsiCo said. “We will also continue over the course of 2018 to review on a quarterly basis IndoAgri’s progress against the requested actions outlined above, and in that context we will continue the dialogue with our direct suppliers around IndoAgri-sourced palm oil in our supply chain, including the possibility of change of source.” Article published by Hans Nicholas Jong Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsoredlast_img read more

Jaguar numbers rising at field sites, WCS says

first_imgArticle published by John Cannon Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsored Amazon Biodiversity, Animals, Big Cats, Biodiversity, Biodiversity Crisis, Camera Trapping, China wildlife trade, Cites, Community Development, Community Forestry, Community-based Conservation, Conservation, Deforestation, Ecology, Endangered Species, Environment, Extinction, Forests, Habitat Degradation, Habitat Destruction, Habitat Loss, Happy-upbeat Environmental, Hunting, Indigenous Communities, Indigenous Groups, Indigenous Peoples, Indigenous Rights, Jaguars, Mammals, Parks, Poaching, Protected Areas, Rainforest People, Rainforests, Research, Saving Species From Extinction, Threats To The Amazon, Tropical Forests, United Nations, Wildlife, Wildlife Conservation center_img WCS reports that jaguar numbers have risen by almost 8 percent a year between 2002 and 2016 at study sites in Central and South America.The sites cover around 400,000 square kilometers (154,440 square miles) of jaguar habitat.Despite the promising findings, WCS scientists caution that habitat destruction, hunting in response to livestock killings, and poaching for their body parts remain critical threats to jaguars. Jaguar numbers at specific study sites in Central and South America are rising, based on surveys over the past decade and a half by the Wildlife Conservation Society.Elizabeth Bennett, vice president of species conservation at WCS, said the gains resulted from partnerships with local communities, government agencies and other conservation groups.“We are excited that our jaguar conservation efforts of the past two decades are showing signs of success,” Bennett said in a statement.Jaguars face threats from hunting and habitat destruction. Photo ©Julie Larsen Maher/WCS.The number of jaguars (Panthera onca) at all WCS sites across some 400,000 square kilometers (154,440 square miles) of the cat’s habitat in Latin America rose by almost 8 percent a year between 2002 and 2016. Those sites are home to around 5,000 of the remaining 60,000 jaguars left in the Americas.Even with the good news, however, WCS scientists caution that the dangers that have driven — and continue to drive — down jaguar numbers still exist.“Two threats have taken a particularly heavy toll on the Americas’ largest cat species: habitat depletion due to the conversion of forest for development and agriculture, and killing in response to the loss of livestock,” John Polisar, the jaguar species coordinator at WCS, said in the statement.Jaguars, listed as near threatened by the IUCN, roam on only about two-thirds of the range that they had before 1900. Few remain in the U.S., and the bulk of the jaguar population lives between dry scrubland in Mexico and the northern tip of Argentina.Around 60,000 jaguars still inhabit a variety of ecosystems throughout the Americas. Camera trap photo courtesy of Guido Ayala & Maria Viscarra/WCS.To protect jaguar habitat, WCS said it worked local and indigenous communities, like the Tacana, who live in the Greater Madidi landscape of Bolivia. The Tacana’s finely tuned relationship with the land results in a deforestation rate that’s four times lower inside the area they manage as it is outside, according to a 2015 WCS estimate. Tacana land also overlaps with the boundaries of Madidi National Park.In fact, the density of jaguars encountered inside Madidi National Park, already one of the world’s most biodiverse protected areas, was three times what it was in 2002.Biologists weigh such successes against new threats on the horizon, like poaching for the trade in jaguar body parts, said Julie Kunen, the vice president for WCS’s Americas program. Fangs, in particular, are sought after in Chinese markets. A 2016 bust led to the confiscation of 337 fangs, many of which likely came from jaguars in Madidi National Park.The WCS sites included the habitat of some 5,000 jaguars. Camera trap photo courtesy of Guido Ayala & Maria Viscarra/WCS.Still, WCS has documented an increase in jaguar numbers at specific places throughout their range.“We can look with optimism to the future for jaguars in the Americas,” Bennett said, when WCS first announced the findings on March 3, World Wildlife Day, which marks the date that CITES, or the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, was adopted by the U.N. in 1973. “That’s welcome news, indeed, on this World Wildlife Day.”Banner image of jaguars with a camera trap courtesy of Guido Ayala & Maria Viscarra/WCS.FEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the author of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page.last_img read more

In Jakarta, wildlife monitors find a hotspot for the illegal tortoise trade

first_imgIndonesia’s capital has seen an increase in the sale of non-native species of tortoises and freshwater turtles that are prohibited for international commercial trade, according to a report by the wildlife-monitoring group TRAFFIC.Growing demand for these species, coupled with Indonesia’s lax enforcement of customs regulation at international ports of entry and an outdated conservation act, have allowed the illicit international animal trade to grow, TRAFFIC said.The group has called on the Indonesian government to improve the country’s conservation laws and regulations, and urged more stringent monitoring of the markets, pet stores and expos in Jakarta and across the country to document and assess the extent of any illegal trade. JAKARTA — The sale of some of the most threatened tortoise and turtle species from around the world continues to flourish at stores and exhibitions across Jakarta, highlighting longstanding concerns about the illegal animal trade in the Indonesian capital.A four-month survey by the wildlife-monitoring group TRAFFIC in 2015 found that 4,985 individuals from 65 different tortoise and freshwater turtle species were on display for sale at pet stores, animal markets, tropical fish markets and reptile expos in Jakarta.Fifteen of the 65 species observed during the survey were native to Indonesia, only three of which were included in the country’s list of protected animals, according to the report published on March 26.Radiated tortoises (Astrochelys radiata) and African spurred tortoises (Centrochelys sulcata) for sale at an expo in a shopping center in North Jakarta. Photo courtesy of TRAFFIC.The rest of the surveyed species were identified as endemic to countries from Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, South America and Madagascar, the report said.It added that nine species observed, only one of which was endemic to Indonesia, were currently listed in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), for which commercial international trade is prohibited.“[This means] at least eight of these species were likely to have been illegally imported,” John Morgan, from TRAFFIC Southeast Asia and lead author of the report, wrote.Two of these non-native species are the ploughshare tortoise (Astrochelys yniphora) and the radiated tortoise (Astrochelys radiata), both native to Madagascar and listed by the IUCN as critically endangered, or a step away from being extinct in the wild.The study also identified an increase in the sale of non-native species of tortoise and freshwater turtles from previous surveys, in 2004 and 2010, which documented 26 and 35 non-native species, respectively.Growing demand for these species, coupled with Indonesia’s lax enforcement of customs regulations at international ports of entry and an outdated conservation act, have allowed the illicit international animal trade to grow, TRAFFIC said.The report also showed that non-native species were significantly more expensive overall than native species. Some of the non-native species were being offered at $1,535 a head, and the native species at $83 a head.An alligator snapping turtle (Macrochelys temminckii) from North America on sale at a reptile expo in Jakarta in 2015. A higher number of North American species were found on sale in 2015 compared to previous two surveys. Photo courtesy of TRAFFIC.In 2008, Indonesia began to require import permits for all CITES-listed freshwater turtles and tortoises entering the country. Countries of origin must also notify Indonesian authorities before issuing an export permit.However, existing national regulations — the 1990 Conservation Act and a 1999 government regulation on flora and fauna management — fail to prescribe any protections for non-native species. While Indonesia is a signatory to CITES, it has not ratified the convention by legislating it into law.“This legal loophole hampers any law enforcement to counter illegal trade in these non-native species,” Morgan wrote. “Furthermore, existing laws covering native protected species are seldom enforced effectively, and traders are rarely prosecuted to the full extent possible under the law: thus illegal trade continues largely uninhibited given the lack of regulation and deterrence.”Indonesia’s parliament and government are currently working on a revision to the existing national laws and regulations on conservation and animal protection.Morgan suggested the revision of the conservation law should include legal protections for non-native CITES-listed species, as well as for threatened native species that are not listed as protected by the government. Examples of the latter include the Sulawesi forest turtle (Leucocephalon yuwonoi), listed as critically endangered by the IUCN.The wildlife group also called for more stringent monitoring of the markets, pet stores and expos in Jakarta and across the country by the government, NGOs and researchers, in order to document and assess the extent of any illegal trade.“If this trade and the open markets that sell species illegally are not made a priority for law enforcement action, many of the currently threatened species will be pushed closer to extinction,” said Kanitha Krishnasamy, acting regional director for TRAFFIC in Southeast Asia.Radiated tortoises (Astrochelys radiata) and Indian star tortoises (Geochelone elegans) on sale at an expo in North Jakarta. Signs prohibiting the taking of photos are visible. Photo courtesy of TRAFFIC.According to a 2008 report by TRAFFIC, the supply and demand of freshwater turtles and tortoises appears to be increasing throughout Southeast Asia.“Indonesian authorities should increase communication and co-operation with countries known to be source locations or transit points for smuggled animals entering the Indonesian market, such as Madagascar, the USA, Thailand, Malaysia and China to disrupt international trade chains and focus law enforcement efforts on key traders and species of concern,” Elizabeth John, senior communications officer at TRAFFIC, told Mongabay in an email.More than 50 percent of the world’s 356 known species of tortoises and turtles are currently threatened with extinction, or are nearly extinct, a new report warns. Loss and degradation of habitat; hunting for meat and eggs, or for traditional medicines; and the pet trade, both legal and illegal, are largely driving the decline of these reptiles.“There are many species at risk from trade, but tortoise and freshwater turtles are one group of species that do not receive the same attention as other more high-profile or iconic species,” John said. “Jakarta has been regularly shown to be a hotspot for trade in these species over the last decade.”Radiated tortoises (Astrochelys radiata) and Indian star tortoises (Geochelone elegans) with prices painted on their shells, at an exhibition in 2015 in Jakarta. Photo courtesy of TRAFFIC.FEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the author of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page. Article published by Basten Gokkon Animal Cruelty, Animals, Biodiversity, Conservation, Critically Endangered Species, Endangered Species, Environment, Freshwater Animals, freshwater turtles, Illegal Trade, Pet Trade, Trade, Turtles, Turtles And Tortoises, Wildlife, Wildlife Conservation, Wildlife Crime, Wildlife Trade, Wildlife Trafficking center_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsoredlast_img read more

Frogs may be ‘fighting back’ against deadly pandemic

first_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsored Article published by Morgan Erickson-Davis Amphibians, Animals, Chytridiomycosis, Environment, Extinction, Featured, Frogs, Fungi, Happy-upbeat Environmental, Herps, Mass Extinction, Research, Trade, Wildlife, Wildlife Trade Chytridiomycosis is caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a type of chytrid fungus.Scientists believe Bd originated in Africa, and has spread around the world where it has contributed to the declines and extinctions of at least 200 amphibian species globally.But a new study finds populations of several Panamanian frog species exposed to Bd appear to have gained resistance to the pathogen. Previous research indicates U.S. frogs may also have developed resistance after exposure.The authors of the study say their findings offer hope for the survival of amphibians around the world. But they caution that detecting the remnant populations that survive infection and helping them persist and proliferate will require extensive monitoring efforts. A deadly disease that has ripped through frog populations around the world, contributing to huge declines in many species and the outright extinction of several others, has shown little sign of slowing its onslaught since scientists first detected it in the 1990s. But recent research indicates some frogs are showing increased resistance to the pathogen, giving biologists and conservationists hope that infected populations may be able to recover.Chytridiomycosis is caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a species from a group of fungi called chytrids. Members of this group are usually found on underwater decaying plant or animal matter, but Bd is different – it feeds on the skin of living amphibians, primarily frogs. Infection interferes with a frog’s ability to take in water and air through its skin, often leading to death.Scientists believe Bd originated in Africa and first spread around the world due to the trade in African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis), which are commonly used as laboratory research animals. American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus), which show low susceptibility to the disease and have become an invasive species in many parts of the world, have also been implicated as carriers. In addition, scientists detected Bd on bird feathers, opening up another wide route of transmission. Today, Bd is found on every continent where amphibians live.The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) is an aquatic frog species widely used in research. Photo by H. Krisp via Wikimedia Commons (CC BY SA 3.0)“This pathogen infects many different amphibian species — sometimes without causing disease — and can survive in the environment outside of its host, so it’s not going away anytime soon,” said Allison Byrne, a doctoral student at the University of California, Berkeley who is studying chytridiomycosis.Infection can be devastating to frog populations, killing some off completely. In Australia alone, scientists believe the fungus was directly responsible for the extinction of four species. Worldwide, Bd has been implicated in the decline or extinction of at least 200 amphibian species, and some biologists peg it as the driving force behind the largest disease-caused loss of biodiversity ever recorded.But there may be hope for frogs faced with Bd. A new study released yesterday in the journal Science finds populations of several frog species in Panama appear to be gaining resistance to the pathogen. The study was conducted by scientists at research institutions in the U.S. and Panama.“In this study, we made the exciting discovery that a handful of amphibian species – some of which were thought to have been completely wiped out – are persisting, and may even be recovering, after lethal disease outbreaks,” study lead author Jamie Voyles, a disease ecologist at the University of Nevada, Reno, said in a statement. “We wanted to understand how it was happening. Was it a change in the pathogen, the frogs, or both?”Voyles, Byrne and their colleagues looked at pathogen and frog host samples collected in Panama before, during and after infection by Bd. They found that while the fungus is still as deadly as it was before the outbreak, frogs now appear to be more likely to survive after infection.“The evidence suggests that the pathogen has not changed. It’s possible that the hosts have evolved better defenses over a relatively short period of time” she said. “We found that nearly a decade after the outbreak, the fungal pathogen is still equally deadly, but the frogs in Panama are surviving and may have better defenses against it. This suggests that some of Panama’s frogs may be fighting back.”Panama’s Atelopus varius has been affected by the Bd fungus, and is listed as Critically Endangered by the IUCN. But researchers have detected resistance to the fungus in wild A. varius frogs that survived exposure. Photo by Brian Gratwicke, SCBIAtelopus varius was given its “varius” moniker because the species exhibits a wide range of colors and patterns. Photo by Brian Gratwicke, SCBIAtelopus varius has several common names, including variable harlequin frog, clown frog, golden frog, painted frog and Veragoa stubfoot toad. Photo by Brian Gratwicke, SCBIChytridiomycosis is the main driver of Atelopus varius decline. But the species is also threatened by habitat loss from deforestation and predation by invasive trout. Photo by Brian Gratwicke, SCBIAmphibian skin secretions are full of antimicrobial substances that help ward off disease. When Voyles and her team looked at the skin secretions of wild frogs that survived a Bd epidemic, they found that they slowed the growth of the fungus much more effectively than secretions from captive frogs that had not yet encountered the pathogen. They say this indicates frogs may gain resistance only after being exposed to Bd.This, say conservationists, may have important implications for gauging the impacts of Bd, as well as relocation and reintroduction programs for species in affected areas. One of these is the Panama Amphibian Rescue and Conservation Project run by the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI), which collected healthy frogs before the outbreak in the hopes of releasing them back into the wild.“We learned to breed them in captivity and are now releasing Atelopus varius in areas where the epidemic has passed, so it is extremely important for us to realize that the defenses of these frogs may be weaker than the defenses of frogs that survived the epidemic in the wild,” said Roberto Ibáñez, study coauthor, STRI staff scientist and in-country director of the Panama Amphibian Rescue and Conservation Project. “Captive breeding programs must consider breeding and releasing frogs with stronger defenses, and testing their skin secretions against the fungus is one useful tool to see which frogs are more resistant.”STRI staff scientist and in-country director of the Panama Amphibian Rescue and Conservation Project Roberto Ibañez collects frogs for captive breeding. Photo by Sean Mattson, STRIInside the Panama Amphibian Conservation and Rescue Center in Gamboa, Panama, program manager, Jorge Guerrel, feeds frogs that have been taken into captivity to protect them from the chytrid fungal disease sweeping the country. Photo by Brian Gratwicke, SCBIOn Jan. 17, 2018, Smithsonian researchers released approximately 500 frogs at First Quantum Minerals’s concession site in Panama’s Colon province as a first step toward full-scale reintroduction of this species. This individual is carrying a radio transmitter so that it can be tracked by researchers after the release. Photo by Brian Gratwicke, SCBIThis study isn’t the first to detect the emergence of Bd resistance in frogs. In 2016, scientists discovered that a population of endangered Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frogs in the U.S. appeared to have developed resistance to Bd after infection by the fungus (together with an influx of nonnative trout) nearly wiped them out.The authors of the Panama study say their findings offer hope for the survival of amphibians around the world. But they caution that even if this resistance trend holds for most species, detecting the remnants that survive infection and helping them persist and proliferate will require extensive monitoring efforts.“Clarifying how disease outbreaks subside will help us predict, and respond to, other emerging pathogens in plants, wildlife – and in humans,” Voyles said. “These are increasingly important goals in a time when rapid globalization has increased the rate of introduction of pathogens to new host populations.” Citation:Voyles, J., Woodhams, D.C., Saenz, V et al. 2018. Shifts in disease dynamics in a tropical amphibian assemblage are not due to pathogen attenuation. Science. 10.1126/science.aao4806Banner image of Atelopus varius by Brian GratwickeFEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the editor of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page.last_img read more